native language of the Romans was Latin, an Italic language the grammar of
which relies little on word order, conveying meaning through a system of affixes
attached to word stems. Its alphabet was based on the Etruscan alphabet, which
was in turn based on the Greek alphabet. Although surviving Latin literature
consists almost entirely of Classical Latin, an artificial and highly stylized
and polished literary language from the 1st century BCE, the spoken language of
the Roman Empire was Vulgar Latin, which significantly differed from Classical
Latin in grammar and vocabulary, and eventually in pronunciation.
While Latin remained the main written language of the Roman
Empire, Greek came to be the language spoken by the well-educated elite, as
most of the literature studied by Romans was written in Greek. In the eastern
half of the Roman Empire, which later became the Byzantine Empire, Latin was
never able to replace Greek, and after the death of Justinian, Greek became the
official language of the Byzantine government. The expansion of the Roman
Empire spread Latin throughout Europe, and Vulgar Latin evolved into dialects
in different locations, gradually shifting into many distinct Romance languages.